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VITAMINS and MINERALS that can reduce PMS

Vitaminer & mineraler PMS

We have probably all experienced various symptoms before our period such as cramps, mood swings or sweet tooth. These symptoms can come in many different forms and are part of the concept of PMS . PMS can be both physical and mental. When the body signals PMS symptoms, it is information from the body that the hormones are not completely in balance and that we need to support the body with what it needs.

How does what we eat affect our PMS?

It is entirely possible to reduce PMS by what we eat . From the time you make a change in what you eat, it can take around three months before you see an effect and improvement of imbalances in your menstrual cycle. What kind of effect you see depends on what imbalances you have and how you support the other parts of your lifestyle. When it comes to exactly what we need to eat , we are all different and have different needs. Sometimes we don't get enough from the food we eat, so supplements may be needed. Always talk to an expert before choosing to take any large doses. However, what studies show is that there are several vitamins and minerals that are important for a functioning menstrual cycle and above all that have been shown to have a positive effect on PMS symptoms such as sore breasts, period pains and cramps.

Now we thought we would guide you through which vitamins and minerals research shows can have a positive impact on PMS. If you have any deficiencies, it can be expressed through various PMS symptoms, but by supporting with the vitamins and minerals, it is possible to reduce and prevent any symptoms that may appear in phase three (before menstruation). In addition to diet and nutrition, other parts of your lifestyle also have an impact, you can read more about it here . We are a whole where all parts have an impact on each other.

The foods, vitamins and minerals that can prevent and reduce PMS

B6 Vitamin

There are several studies that show that supplementing with vitamin B6 can help with PMS symptoms as it helps magnesium reach the cells, among other things. Vitamin B6 also helps against inflammation and to stabilize blood sugar. In addition, it has been shown to increase mental sharpness, improve sleep and make us happy (B6 has an important role in creating neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine that increase feelings of happiness and well-being).

B6 is found in animal foods such as liver, salmon, poultry, mackerel, venison and vegetable foods such as beef, wheat germ, sun-dried tomatoes, sunflower seeds, hazelnuts, raw bananas, walnuts. B6 is preferred from animals but raw bananas are an okay source apart from animals. Another important piece of information is that B6 is destroyed when heated, so be careful not to heat the food too much.

Deficiency symptoms: Anxiety, sleep problems, depression and skin problems.


This mineral is involved in over 300 different processes in the body. It is incredibly important for the immune system but also for energy metabolism. Magnesium also has a calming effect and can help with many PMS symptoms such as sore breasts, cramps and cravings.

Magnesium is found in animal foods such as tuna and dried reindeer meat, as well as vegetable foods such as pumpkin seeds, cocoa, flax seeds, brazil nuts, sunflower seeds and almonds.

Symptoms of deficiency: Impaired immune system, PMS, sore breasts, cramps, period pain, Nausea, muscle cramps, anxiety, osteoporosis and fatigue.


This mineral is needed to take care of estrogen and manufacture sex hormones. Calcium can help to reduce PMS and period-related symptoms. Calcium and vitamin D are strongly linked. Calcium should not be taken on its own as a supplement as it can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Calcium is found in animal foods such as parmesan, hard cheese and feta cheese as well as vegetable foods such as sesame seeds, kelp, dill and parsley, sweet almonds and flax seeds.

Deficiency symptoms: PMS, anxiety, muscle cramps, irritation and osteoporosis.


The mineral potassium can also help prevent and reduce PMS symptoms. Potassium affects the salt balance in the body and thus fluid retention and blood pressure. Supplementing with potassium can therefore help reduce fluid retention during PMS. In addition, potassium affects insulin and blood sugar sensitivity.

Potassium is found, among other things, in animal foods such as kelp, mackerel and cod, as well as in vegetable foods such as cocoa, sun-dried tomatoes, white beans, sweet almonds, dates and avocados.

Deficiency symptoms: Fluid retention, fatigue, cramps, nausea and diarrhea.


Selenium is needed for thyroid hormone and our sex hormones to function. Selenium protects us from toxins and infections. The soil varies greatly in selenium content, which means that all foods do as well, both animals and vegetables. Therefore, it is difficult to give general guidelines when it comes to selenium in particular.

Selenium is found, among other things, in animal foods such as mackerel, lobster, halibut and tuna, as well as vegetable foods such as brazil nuts and sunflower seeds.

Deficiency symptoms: Decreased thyroid function and fatigue.


Iron is important for all our functions in the body. Iron is needed for the body to be able to transport oxygen. Iron is also important for the thyroid gland and fertility. The absorption of iron from animals is significantly higher than from vegetables. Feel free to combine iron with vitamin C to increase the absorption of iron. Preferably avoid foods high in calcium in the same meal as the absorption of calcium is prioritized over iron.

Iron is found, among other things, in animal foods such as red meat, liver, game and oysters, as well as vegetable foods such as pumpkin seeds, brazil nuts and sunflower seeds.

Deficiency symptoms: Fatigue, dizziness, heavy bleeding, blood sugar disturbances, impaired digestion and impaired skin.


This mineral is important for our sex hormones, our blood sugar and for supporting our thyroid gland. Zinc has a positive effect on high cortisol. Zinc can help with menstrual cramps as many women with PMS symptoms have low levels of zinc. The absorption of zinc decreases from nuts, seeds and legumes due to antinutrients. We improve absorption by soaking.

Zinc is found, among other things, in animal foods such as oysters, beef, game, liver and hard cheese, as well as vegetable foods such as wheat germ, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, cocoa and cashew nuts.

Deficiency symptoms : Hair loss, diarrhea, fatigue, loss of appetite, eczema, acne, skin cracks, vision changes and PMS.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is important for skin, vision, immune system and sex hormones. Vitamin A is fat-soluble and therefore needs to be combined with fat to be absorbed. Retinol is the active form that we get through animals, such as eggs and butter. Beta-carotene is found in vegetables and can be converted to retinol but in a smaller amount. The best source of vitamin A is animals, although we need beta-carotene for other functions. Zinc is necessary to be able to use vitamin A.

Vitamin A is found, among other things, in animal foods such as liver, real butter and egg yolk, as well as vegetable foods such as carrots and kale.

Symptoms of deficiency: Low levels of sex hormones, disturbed circadian rhythm, weaker immune system, food intolerances, delayed puberty and skin spots that can be mistaken for acne.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is important for the immune system, sex hormones, the signaling substance norepinephrine and the love hormone oxytocin, as well as collagen production. Vitamin C can increase progesterone and help lower cortisol. Vitamin C cannot be processed, stored, dried or heated as it is heat sensitive. Vitamin C helps absorb the iron in the food we eat.

Vitamin C is found, among other things, in vegetable foods such as rose hips, chillies, peppers, parsley, horseradish, currants, orange and lemon peels and kale.

Deficiency symptoms: Bleeding gums, impaired wound healing, easy bruising and poorer hair quality.

Vitamin D

This vitamin can help reduce PMS symptoms such as lower back pain, heavy menstrual cramps, and sensitivity to crying easily. Studies have also shown that vitamin D could have an effect on insulin and blood sugar . Therefore, vitamin D can be beneficial in PCOS as vitamin D status also affects the ability to ovulate in women with PCOS. Optimal levels of vitamin D have also been shown to be important for women undergoing IVF treatment .

We mainly get vitamin D through the sun and it is also found in animal foods such as fatty fish, eggs, mushrooms and fortified milk products.

Deficiency symptoms: It can be difficult to know if you are deficient in vitamin D as the symptoms can vary from case to case. Some may experience increased fatigue, muscle weakness and bone pain.


If you suffer from PMS symptoms, it is information from the body that we should listen to. Number one is to review lifestyle , that is, how you live your life where nutritional supplements can be a complement. Questions you can ask yourself to get an indication of how your lifestyle may affect perceived PMS are the following questions: Am I eating enough? How does my stomach and intestines work? Am I training in a way that damages the body (that is, overtraining)? Do I experience a lot of stress (internal and external)? Am I exposed to a lot of toxins in your everyday life? By reviewing your lifestyle and starting at the right end, you can prevent and reduce any period-related discomfort you may experience during the month.

Sources for those who want to get involved further:

Vitamin B6
Kashanian, M., Mazinani, R. and Jalalmanesh, S., 2007. Pyridoxine (B6) for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). European Psychiatry , [online] 22, p.S276. Available at: < >

Masoumi, S., Ataollahi, M. and Oshvandi, K., 2016. Effect of Combined Use of Calcium and Vitamin B6 on Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms: a Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Caring Sciences , [online] 5(1), pp.67-73. Available at: < >

Oshvandi, K., Shobeiri, F. and Nazari, M., 2015. Clinical effectiveness of vitamin E and vitamin B6 for improving pain severity in cyclic mastalgia. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research , [online] 20(6), p.723. Available at: < >

Wyatt, K., Dimmock, P., Jones, P. and Shaughn O'Brien, P., 1999. Efficacy of vitamin B-6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: systematic review. BMJ , [online] 318(7195), pp.1375-1381. Available at: < >

Abraham, G. and Lubran, M., 1981. Serum and red cell magnesium levels in patients with premenstrual tension. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , [online] 34(11), pp.2364-2366. Available at: < >

Boyle, NB., et al, 2017. The Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Subjective Anxiety and Stress—A Systematic Review. Nutrients , [online] 9(5), p.429. Available at: < >

Facchinetti F., et al., 1991. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes. Obstetrics And Gynecology, [online] 78(2), pp.177–181. Available at: < >

Facchinetti, F., Sances, G., Borella, P., Genazzani, A. and Nappi, G., 1991. Magnesium Prophylaxis of Menstrual Migraine: Effects on Intracellular Magnesium. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain , [online] 31(5), pp.298-301. Available at: < >

Fathizadeh N., et al., 2010. Evaluating the effect of magnesium and magnesium plus vitamin B6 supplement on the severity of premenstrual syndrome. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res , [online] (Suppl 1):401-5. Available at: < >

Parazzini, F., Di Martino, M. and Pellegrino, P., 2017. Magnesium in the gynecological practice: a literature review. Magnesium Research , [online] 30(1), pp.1-7.

Walker, A., et al., 1998. Magnesium Supplementation Alleviates Premenstrual Symptoms of Fluid Retention. Journal of Women's Health , [online] 7(9), pp.1157-1165. Available at: < >

Dziembowska, I., Kwapisz, J., Izdebski, P. and Żekanowska, E., 2019. Mild iron deficiency may affect female endurance and behavior. Physiology & Behavior , [online] 205, pp.44-50. Available at: < >

LAYRISSE, M., COOK, J., MARTINEZ, C., ROCHE, M., KUHN, I., WALKER, R. and FINCH, C., 1969. Food Iron Absorption: A Comparison of Vegetable and Animal Foods. Blood , [online] 33(3), pp.430-443. Available at: < >

Charlton, R. and Bothwell, T., 1983. Iron Absorption. Annual Review of Medicine , [online] 34(1), pp.55-68. Available at: < >


Baltaci, AK., Mogulkoc, R. and Baltaci, SB., 2019. Review: The role of zinc in the endocrine system. Pak J Pharm Sci , [online] 32(1), pp.231-239. Available at: <

Chuong, C. and Dawson, E., 1994. Zinc and copper levels in premenstrual syndrome*. Fertility and Sterility , [online] 62(2), pp.313-320. Available at: <

Kashefi, F., Khajehei, M., Tabatabaeichehr, M., Alavinia, M. and Asili, J., 2014. Comparison of the Effect of Ginger and Zinc Sulfate on Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial. Pain Management Nursing , [online] 15(4), pp.826-833. Available at: <

Bertone-Johnson, E., Hankinson, S., Bendich, A., Johnson, S., Willett, W. and Manson, J., 2005. Calcium and Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Incident Premenstrual Syndrome. Archives of Internal Medicine , [online] 165(11), p.1246. Available at: < >

Ghanbari, Z., Haghollahi, F., Shariat, M., Foroshani, A. and Ashrafi, M., 2009. Effects of Calcium Supplement Therapy in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome. Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology , [online] 48(2), pp.124-129. Available at: < >

Masoumi, S., Ataollahi, M. and Oshvandi, K., 2016. Effect of Combined Use of Calcium and Vitamin B6 on Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms: a Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Caring Sciences , [online] 5(1), pp.67-73. Available at: < >

Shobeiri, F., Araste, F., Ebrahimi, R., Jenabi, E. and Nazari, M., 2017. Effect of calcium on premenstrual syndrome: A double-blind randomized clinical trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology Science , [online] 60(1), p.100. Available at: < >

Thys-Jacobs, S., 2000. Micronutrients and the Premenstrual Syndrome: The Case for Calcium. Journal of the American College of Nutrition , [online] 19(2), pp.220-227. Available at: < >

Vitamin D
Abdi, F., Ozgoli, G. and Rahnemaie, F., 2019. A systematic review of the role of vitamin D and calcium in premenstrual syndrome. Obstetrics & Gynecology Science , [online] 62(2), p.73. Available at: < >

Bahrami, A., Avan, A., Sadeghnia, H., Esmaeili, H., Tayefi, M., et al., 2018. High dose vitamin D supplementation can improve menstrual problems, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome in adolescents. Gynecological Endocrinology , [online] 34(8), pp.659-663. Available at: < >

Bertone-Johnson, E., Hankinson, S., Bendich, A., Johnson, S., Willett, W. and Manson, J., 2005. Calcium and Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Incident Premenstrual Syndrome. Archives of Internal Medicine, [online] 165(11), p.1246. Available at: < >

Jensen, A., Nielsen, M., Guleria, S., Kjaer, S., Heitmann, B. and Kesmodel, U., 2020. Chances of live birth after exposure to vitamin D–fortified margarine in women with fertility problems: results from a Danish population-based cohort study. Fertility and Sterility , [online] 113(2), pp.383-391. Available at: < shows-extra-vitamin-d-may-boost-infertile-women's-chances-of-having-a-child/ >

Łagowska, K., 2018. The Relationship between Vitamin D Status and the Menstrual Cycle in Young Women: A Preliminary Study. Nutrients , [online] 10(11), p.1729. Available at: < >


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